Terbinafine HCL Cream 1% 10g/tube
1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antifungal for topical use (ATC code D01A E15)
Terbinafine is an allylamine which has a broad spectrum of antifungal activity. At low concentrations terbinafine is fungicidal against dermatophytes, moulds and certain dimorphic fungi. The activity versus yeasts is fungicidal or fungistatic depending of the species.
Terbinafine interferes specifically with fungal sterol biosynthesis at an early step. This leads to a deficiency in ergosterol and to an intracellular accumulation of squalene, resulting in fungal cell death. Terbinafine acts by inhibition of squalene epoxidase in the fungal cell membrane. The enzyme squalene epoidase is not linked to the cytochrome P450 system.
2 Pharmacokinetic properties
Less than 5% of the dose is absorbed after topical application to humans; systemic exposure is therefore very slight.
3 Preclinical safety data
In long-term studies (up to 1 year) in rats and dogs no marked toxic effects were seen in either species up to oral doses of about 100 mg/kg a day. At high oral doses, the liver and possibly also the kidneys were identified as potential target organs.
In a two-year oral carcinogenicity study in mice, no neoplastic or other abnormal findings attributable to treatment were made up to doses of 130 (males) and 156 (females) mg/kg a day. In a two-year oral carcinogenicity study in rats at the highest dose level, 69 mg/kg a day, an increased incidence of liver tumours was observed in males. The changes, which may be associated with peroxisome proliferation, have been shown to be species-specific since they were not seen in the carcinogenicity study in mice or in other studies in mice, dogs or monkeys.
During the studies of high dose oral terbinafine in monkeys, refractile irregularities were observed in the retina at the higher doses (non-toxic effect level was 50 mg/kg). These irregularities were associated with the presence of a terbinafine metabolite in ocular tissue and disappeared after drug discontinuation. They were not associated with histological changes.
A standard battery of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests revealed no evidence of a mutagenic or clastogenic potential for the drug.
No adverse effects on fertility or other reproduction parameters were observed in studies in rats or rabbits.